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The Case of Transformation in Mozambique

Mozambique is now one of Africa’s fastest growing economies. What were the key steps in its path from Civil War, through one party state system and centrally planned socialist economy, to multiparty constitutional democracy? How…

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Spain: From Dictatorship to Democracy, and Poverty to Prosperity

The story of how Spain transitioned from a military dictatorship to a situational monarchy with a Parliamentary democracy is widely known. This paper scrutinizes the deeper process: how Spain developed its national institutions to build…

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Himachal Pradesh: Understanding State-Level Transition in India

How did Himachal Pradesh evolve to become one of India’s wealthiest states, with low poverty levels and above average literacy?  The prospect appeared unlikely when 30 princely Hill states merged to form a state characterized…

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Bihar: Transformation from a Dysfunctional to a Redistributive State

Confronted by set of deeply entrenched obstacles, the government of Bihar adopted a carefully structured approach to state-building. In this paper we assess the measures it took to consolidate the rule of law, build key…

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Singapore: From Third World to First

How did Singapore transform itself from a breakaway island state few considered viable, wracked with ethnic tension, political and economic problems, to a thriving economic hub and global financial center? Which areas of economy and…

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Gujarat: The Transition to a West Indian Tiger

Stagnating agriculture and a declining textiles sector characterized the Gujarati economy on its 1960 creation. Poor quality infrastructure compounded the challenge. We look at the five major market-building strategies it adopted to combine investment focus…

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Case of Finnish Transformation: Balancing Growth with Equity

One of the most interesting characteristics of Finland’s long-term ascent of many of the world economic and governance indicators has been how, instead of focusing on problems, it tended to adopt a pragmatic, solution-based approach.…

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Nobody Owes Us Anything: Self-Destruction to Self-Reliance in Rwanda (2010)

How has Rwanda generated uniquely Rwandan solutions through leveraging its assets to national regeneration? What were the key elements of the Rwandan government’s reform program, and how did it balance robust economic growth with reconciling…

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Karnataka: Understanding State Level Transition in India

We explain why Karnataka is an instructive case study, containing both positive and negative lessons. In the last decade income growth has been spectacular; self-interested policy making have led it to be branded India’s most…

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The Development of Frameworks for Effective Policy-Making in Chile

Why is Chile now considered a model of good governance and free-market reform? How has it moved to an open, prosperous and stable democracy and how successful has it been in moving beyond the faction…

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Turkey: Constructing a Modern State 1918 to 1938

The creation of modern Turkey was characterized by a remarkable set of internally driven reforms. We break this complicated process into its key components. What were the key political steps? What were the key economic…

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