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Security sector reform is a major challenge for all countries.  Security institutions are not always well aligned with national requirements, either in terms of overall capacity, or in terms of relative balance and disposition of security sector components.

This manual provides a definition of security that accounts for theories of monopoly of legitimate use of violence, balance between state security and human or individual security and security in context, as a relative – not an absolute. The manual deals initially with the wider nexus between security and state interests, threats, risks and wider strategic objectives.  It then moves through a detailed analysis of security institutions by function, and provides guidance on operational approaches to enhancing security, combining general guidance with illustrated examples. It is aimed both at administrators and officials working within the security sector itself, and at senior policymakers including up to the level of a national security adviser. The manual provides a framework for assessing needs, evaluating existing capacity, setting objectives and detailing how to translate these into security outcomes.