The COVID-19 crisis has put the strengths and weaknesses of governments around the world into sharp relief. In their immediate responses to the crisis, governments are being judged by the degree to which they protect and provide for their citizens. But critical tests lie beyond this immediate response phase. Governments will be judged by how they balance protection of people and the economy while the virus persists, the kind of recovery they enable, and how they put forward protections in place to prevent either a resurgence of COVID-19 or any other mass biologic threat. Further, this crisis will see new relationships between the state, citizen and market emerge that will likely define our society for generations ahead.