Governments can most successfully manage their natural resources when they understand the potential of these assets set against the larger economic, social and environmental goals of the country. They can then seek to nurture a sector rooted in rule of law, managed with transparency, clarity and consistency. Collaboration between governments, NGOs, community organizations, industry associations and private companies is essential to ensuring healthy institutions. This chapter analyzes how building robust, functional institutions depends upon collaboration between multiple actors, and sets out a detailed taxonomy of nine key functional roles for governments and their partner organizations. This article is chapter 7 of the World Economic Forum’s Natural Riches? Perspectives on Responsible Natural Resource Management in Conflict-affected Countries.