Afghanistan’s nomadic and semi-nomadic populations are highly vulnerable and are generally excluded from development interventions. The Citizens’ Charter aims to work with this population to provide key services. This brief sets out key areas that must be considered in the design of a pastoralist program. These include assessing nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists’ economic potential, their vulnerabilities, pasture access regimes, socioeconomic differentiation, social and political organization, gender relations, and existing models of services provision. Each section draws on the available literature and points to next steps, and the brief concludes by summarizing the work ahead.