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Adapting CDD/CLD Programming to COVID-19

Image courtesy of the Movement for Community Led Development. ISE is working with the Movement for Community Led Development, and community-led organizations globally, to discuss, collate and share ways in which community-led development (CLD) and community-driven…

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Re-examining the Terms of Aid

The goal of development in fragile states is well established: to help forge pathways out of fragility towards self-reliance and to deliver inclusive and sustainable social, economic, and security outcomes for citizens. The way to…

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Public Participation in the National Budget: Lessons from Pilot Townhall Meetings in Afghanistan

Based on pilot townhalls in Afghanistan, this piece examines how citizens can participate in the formulation of the national budget. Initial findings identified citizens’ stronger-than-expected interest with the national budget, and how their engagement can…

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State Function: Citizen Engagement
Insight & Analysis: Citizen Engagement
Location: Afghanistan
Publication Type: Development Practice Notes
Community-driven Development in Afghanistan: Inclusivity and the Citizens' Charter

Khyber Farahi, former senior adviser to the president on migration and social development, speaks with ISE on his experience working on community-driven development (CDD) in Afghanistan and the critical role of fostering community-ownership in the…

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Participatory Development: The Case for Substantive Facilitation

Afghanistan’s Citizens’ Charter program is national in scope, which means that the core model of facilitation must be able to adapt to a tremendously broad range of socioeconomic environments. This is particularly important as the…

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Afghanistan’s Citizens’ Charter and Inclusive Development: Afghanistan’s Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Kuchi Population in the Citizens’ Charter

Afghanistan’s nomadic and semi-nomadic populations are highly vulnerable and are generally excluded from development interventions. The Citizens’ Charter aims to work with this population to provide key services. This brief sets out key areas that…

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The Citizens’ Charter: Contributions to Poverty Reduction

This brief discusses various aspects of the Citizens’ Charter approach to poverty reduction. These include incorporating a deeper understanding of poverty dynamics into the program’s architecture, engaging provincial and district level authorities and programs, promoting…

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Community Driven Development Series

Policymakers and the international community continue to struggle with how to deliver essential services, particularly in fragile states, in the context of violent conflict, inequality, pervasive corruption, and weak institutions. Community Driven Development (CDD), which…

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Data in Government

The massive proliferation of data has fundamentally changed the systems of modern governance and development. Leveraging sustainable and cohesive data ecosystems, and understanding the limits of data’s use, are unique challenges for country-led transformations that…

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Singapore: Evolution of an Entrepot

Singapore has undergone a remarkable transition since gaining statehood. ISE examines the sequence of priorities and drivers fueling its economic growth from a post-colonial city into a center of industry and trade.

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Insights from Social Psychology

ISE and CMI meet with UCLA Professor Matthew Lieberman to discuss how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to peace-building and citizenship efforts.

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State Function: Citizen Engagement
Insight & Analysis: Fragility & Peace
Ending Extreme Poverty in Fragile and Conflict-affected Situations

Background Research Paper Submitted to the UN High Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda The High Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda set the key task for global development to end extreme poverty…

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Participants of Indonesia’s Pekka Program. | Credit: Pekka



The October call of the Movement for Community-led Development saw government, World Bank and NGO representatives share lessons from implementing national level Community Driven Development programs across three countries: Afghanistan, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. This article was originally posted by the Movement for Community Led Development. View the presentation slides here.


  • Mr. Moujeeb Habib, Head of CCNPP Capacity Development Division, Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, Afghanistan
  • Ms. Nani Zulminarni, Founder and Director, Pekka (Female Headed Household Empowerment Program), Indonesia
  • Ms. Rano Tlepovoa, Social Development Specialist, World Bank Country Office in Uzbekistan


  • Brigitta Bode, Social and Participatory Development Expert, Institute for State Effectiveness (ISE)
  • Rasoul Rasouli, CDD Operations Advisor, ISE and former Director General of the Citizens’ Charter program in Afghanistan
  • Nelly Mecklenburg, Senior Program Officer, ISE

Communities Take Charge of Their Own Development  

Community-driven, or community-led, development (CDD/CLD) is “a development approach that enables communities to identify, prioritize, and implement their development needs and manage resources by themselves,” explained Mr. Rasouli. In such programs, citizens are key assets and stakeholders within the communities, making development more inclusive and cost-effective than top-down programs. In CDD/CLD, people monitor and maintain development projects themselves, fostering “demand-driven approaches” with a strong sense of ownership among communities. Multilateral organizations, such as the World Bank, are increasingly utilizing the platform of CDD/CLD programs to deliver key services to people around the world. Consequently, the CDD/CLD approach also contributes to improved governance with engaged citizens deliberating about and maintaining projects.

As part of an introduction of The Citizens’ Charter National Priority Program in Afghanistan, Mr. Rasouli outlined how the processes of community-driven development strive to take soft components to a transformative scale by applying resources towards community mobilization and capacity building. As COVID-19 stretches the limits of government services in Afghanistan, the Citizens’ Charter is playing a key role in providing critical services to citizens and responding to humanitarian needs. Mr. Rasouli emphasized the implementation and monitoring processes that community members partake in, especially because CDD and CLD encourage “programmatic, bottom-up and inclusive development approaches through increased community participation.” Rural communities gain the opportunity to strive for self-reliance as they take ownership of their own development. The Citizens’ Charter National Priority Program is one example of CLD implementation at the national level.

Lessons from Afghanistan: People are Assets

Started in 2017, the Citizens’ Charter National Priority Program (CCNPP) in Afghanistan has reached 12,213 communities and is a cross-ministerial program, including line ministries such as the Ministries of Education, Public Health, and Rural Rehabilitation and Development. The Citizens’ Charter has the capacity to disperse $300 million USD per year in grants to communities in 123 districts across every province – one-third of the entire country. Citizens’ Charter programs are chosen and maintained by locally-elected Community Development Councils (CDCs), made up of members from the community.

Mr. Habib described the first phase of three-phases that the Citizens’ Charter program has planned. In this phase, nine participatory learning and action (PLA) tools including resource maps, women’s mobility maps, and gap analysis are used to understand existing gaps in the community’s health, education, and infrastructure. In social mapping exercises, community members physically map the neighborhoods in their village to determine election units, making sure there are representatives from each neighborhood on the CDC. Women’s participation in CDCs is around 50% and is intentionally brought into the decision-making processes for development projects and PLA tools.

Not only do these PLA tools allow for an analysis of a community’s assets, but also improve the inclusion of marginalized groups and help prevent elite capture, where more well-off members of the community reap most of the benefits of development projects. To ensure these exercises reflect the whole community, 60% of community members must be present during participatory processes. To collaborate with governments and ensure that community members are treated as productive partners in programming and decision-making, CCNPP has created a policy to coordinate with district governments and delegate projects; this policy creates partnerships to ensure sustainability. 

The Citizens’ Charter maintains minimum service standards (MSS) across all their communities, including access to clean drinking water and a menu of rural infrastructure projects (roads, electricity, irrigation, etc.). Additionally, the Citizens’ Charter maintains specific health and education standards for the community, such as mandated clinic hours and staff capacity and a minimum level of training for teachers, which are overseen by their respective line ministries.

In its design, the Citizens’ Charter is intentionally structured to link wider sub-national governance systems and policies. To prevent overlapping systems, CDCs are utilized as a gateway to governance interventions for the community, with clear roles and responsibilities for engagement with district and provincial governors. The program also hosts grievance redressal mechanisms to ensure monitoring from the community is acted upon by the government. Through these mechanisms, the Citizens’ Charter seeks to act as a sustainable and effective program into the future, which has clear linkages and roles within formal government structures.

The Indonesia Story: Focus on Making Women Visible

Pekka, the Female-Headed Household Empowerment Program, has reached almost 70,000 people across 87 districts of Indonesia. Ms. Zulminarni explained how Pekka emerged to change how women are viewed within Indonesian communities and heighten support for widows. It originated in 2001 to both better support widows, particularly in conflict areas such as Aceh, who were demanding access to resources, and in response to identified gaps in the government’s World Bank-funded Kecamatan Development Program (KDP) CDD program, which was not reaching “the poorest of the poor.”

Ms. Zulimanarni described the program as a unique paradigm. On one hand, Pekka is a traditional development program that seeks to provide greater access to money and other resources to impoverished communities, while on the other hand, seeks to directly address the power relations between men and women within their communities and fight the traditional stigmatization of widows. Prior to releasing direct cash transfer as part of the KDP program, Pekka organizes women in the community to discuss how they can address the problems of corruption in gaining access to the money, where widows have historically been forced to pay “taxes” to receive the grants.

Pekka has continued to focus on the visibility of women-headed families, aiming to fill gaps that governments have left first in KDP, then its successor program PNPM, and now in the Village Law program. It focuses on access to resources and access to justice, particularly on issues regarding legal identity. Through the association of women-headed families, Pekka also builds women’s grassroots capacity by training women to be facilitators and community organizers in their own villages, actively engaging with public decision making. In some cases, women have become parliament members and heads of the village.

The organizers seek to empower women to take full advantage of Village Law No. 6, which devolves powers to village governments to make decisions on issues of development and elect village heads. So far, the association of women-headed families has reached over 69,000 beneficiaries across 20 provinces in Indonesia. Ms. Zulminarni emphasized that the empowerment program was, and continues to be, intended to “reach the most marginalized and vulnerable groups.”

Uzbekistan: Starting New Projects for Poverty Reduction

Ms. Tlepova talked about Uzbekistan’s recent effort to empower citizens through the Obod Qishloq State Program (Prosperous Villages). This program is Uzbekistan’s first-ever CDD program, launched in 2018, with the goal of establishing a presence in over 300 villages in five regions of the country. The Prosperous Villages program is a portion of the government’s wider reform efforts to move towards a market economy, increase transparency with citizens, and prepare Uzbekistan’s first-ever poverty reduction strategy in partnership with the World Bank. Historically, speaking of poverty in Uzbekistan was a taboo topic. Ms. Tlepova noted there has been a distinct shift in the thinking on governance in Uzbekistan, saying that citizens are no longer being asked how they can serve state institutions, but asking how state institutions can serve the people.

Aiding the Prosperous Villages program is the Rural Infrastructure Development Project (RIDP), which is working to make the program more inclusive and participatory for rural citizens, who make up the vast majority of impoverished Uzbeks. During the door-to-door needs assessment for the Prosperous Villages programs, key gaps emerged. These issues included an overdependence on Mahallas – formal and informal local communities – for governance administration and a distinct lack of representation of women and the poor in the Mahallas’ leadership. The assessment also determined that villages close to urban areas were more often chosen to be part of the program and that there were complaints of forced labor among citizens.   Due to COVID-19, the Prosperous Villages program has paused operation and the RIDP has moved along as a standalone project to meet these identified gaps.

The RIDP is targeting over 300 villages across 21 districts in Uzbekistan. The government has allocated approximately $500,000 USD per village and is implementing the RIDP through its Ministry of Economic Empowerment and Poverty Reduction. Working with existing local governance structures, the government will form Mahalla Development Units (MDUs) as the key decision-making authority for the RIDP. MDU members cannot be part of existing Mahalla leadership and, similar to the Citizens’ Charter in Afghanistan, must be composed of members from all neighborhoods in a community and be 50% women. MDUs also host sub-committees focused on young men and women. Trained facilitators – half from NGOs and half direct hires by the government – will facilitate the formation of the MDUs and lead communities through the participatory deliberation and monitoring processes.

A key challenge for the RIDP has been overcoming the highly centralized and bureaucratic nature of the government’s administrative system, where state programs have often been planned in an ad hoc and reactionary fashion. To address the issue, the RIDP is working to build constituencies and support outside of the government. The program is also learning about the tradeoffs of working with versus work through government systems at the local level, where the capacity for outreach and mobilization, especially among vulnerable groups, is still very low. A pilot of the RIDP program, starting with health and wellbeing analyses, is currently ongoing in rural Sokhil village.

Q & A

CDD in Conflict Areas

Mr. Rasouli outlined previous experience from the National Solidarity Program (2003-2016), the precursor to the Citizens’ Charter, wherein community members showed the ability to negotiate for their program even in conflict. Communities negotiated directly with both the government and local armed groups to ensure the safety of the facilitating partners and staff. The government has also developed a high-risk implementation strategy to aid the rollout of CDD programs in insecure areas. Mr. Rasouli iterated that all of these measures are based on developing trust with all the involved stakeholders in the project. 

Infrastructure Meets Social Mobilization 

Though the CDD projects may appear as predominantly infrastructure-related projects, local civil society institutions are essential to their successful implementation. Mr. Rasouli described how the success of CDD programs is reliant on both a hard competence to build the infrastructure but also the soft competence of a truly engaged, organized, and informed community of citizens, NGOs, and CDCs to deliberate on and maintain services in their villages. The goal is not only the building of infrastructure but also the development of a community’s capacity to own such projects.

Combating Corruption on Cash Disbursals

Ms. Zulminarni explained how, unlike many World Bank programs, the KDP/PNPM programs do not require locals to raise 10% of the required funds. However, government agencies were placing illegal “taxes” for the grant dispersals for the programs. A key part of the Pekka program is mobilizing women around how to deal with these taxes and reporting the corruption to other government ministries and the World Bank. Ms. Zulminarni said that, due to their mobilization efforts, the  PNPM/Pekka programs were the only ones in the country not having to pay for the disbursal of funds.

Ensuring Good Facilitation While Scaling Up

A common issue with the scaling up of CDD programs to the national level is that the quality of facilitation – key for understanding the community’s needs and mobilizing citizens – suffers. Ms. Zulminarni described how in Indonesia, the Pekka program focused on grassroots training and mentorship to address this issue. In this way, the women in the communities themselves act as facilitating partners, with less need to rely on NGOs or the World Bank. The Pekka program is lobbying the government to implement this strategy at a larger level to ensure the facilitation of Indonesia’s CDD programs do not suffer as they grow. In Uzbekistan, Ms. Tlepova said the RIDP is focused on hiring high-quality facilitators and educating the government on the importance of facilitation and working with international partners like the World Bank to ensure they are hiring and investing in experienced facilitators. As a result, the government has agreed to allocate 9-10% of the RIDP’s budget for hiring and training facilitators.

Finally, Ms. Bode explained how Afghanistan’s Citizens’ Charter emphasized the importance of “holding a mirror” to the community, helping them understand what poverty looks like in their village, and showing the link between power structures and existing community resources. Citizens’ Charter Facilitating Partners completed several weeks of workshops learning the PLA tools used in the program’s facilitation process, including recording facilitators as they led community discussions so they can learn how their actions and body language impact the PLA activities. Ms. Bode also described how instead of “cascading” facilitation training across a number of Facilitating Partners, the Citizens’ Charter trained a core group of facilitators who then were shadowed by new Facilitating Partners as they worked on the job. After completing the facilitation process in 10 communities with their more senior counterparts, they were then allowed to lead the Citizens’ Charter facilitation on their own in new communities.

Final Reflections

Ms. Bode noted the incredible success of the Pekka program in training women to become grassroots organizers themselves, with some becoming village leaders and even members of parliament. In this sense, CDD programs are not only about building infrastructure for service delivery but also mobilizing and empowering citizens to become leaders themselves. 

A Citizens’ Charter facilitating partner training CDC members in Balkh Province, Afghanistan, 2018. Credit: World Bank


On Wednesday, October 14th, the International Peace Institute (IPI) together with Catalyst for Peace and the Institute for State Effectiveness, is cohosting a virtual policy forum on “Governance That Centers Communities: Lessons from Afghanistan and Sierra Leone.” This event is co-sponsored by the Government of Sierra Leone and the Permanent Mission of Afghanistan to the United Nations. The event will focus on the practical steps and challenges involved in supporting people-centered peace and development efforts in both the short-term and the long-term.

October 14th, 2020 | 6:00am PST / 9:00am EST | View the livestream here
Opening Remarks

H.E. Ms. Francess Piagie Alghali, Minister of State for the Office of the Vice President, Government of Sierra Leone
H.E. Ms. Adela Raz, Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the UN


Ms. Clare Lockhart, Director, Institute for State Effectiveness
Mr. Rasoul Rasouli, CDD Operations and Development Expert, Former Director General, Citizens’ Charter, Afghanistan
Mr. John Caulker, Executive Director, Fambul Tok International
Ms. Libby Hoffman, President, Catalyst for Peace


Ms. Jimena Leiva Roesch, IPI Senior Fellow and Head of Peace and Sustainable Development Program


The world is struggling with both a global pandemic that has challenged national capacities to respond and increasing pressures on funding from both governmental and nongovernmental donors. As a result, there has been increasing attention on the potential of community-owned and -led initiatives to address poverty, mobilize in crises, and increase security and well-being in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. Engaged and organized communities are able to identify their priorities, work through conflicts, access and use existing resources efficiently, and identify creative and contextual solutions. Local solutions and capacity are especially relevant during times like these, when COVID-19 travel restrictions make local action especially important. However, there are many practical challenges when governments and organizations that are designed to deliver solutions shift their practices to make room for community ownership.

Sierra Leone and Afghanistan are two countries that have important experience with integrating community-centered initiatives into national government policy. They offer different contexts, solutions, and challenges that contribute to a growing body of knowledge on how policy can better support community-centered initiatives.

Sierra Leone is just a few years into determining how to scale up the Wan Fambul National Framework for Inclusive Governance and Local Development. This framework was founded following a decade of inviting communities to participate in their own peace and development through a process facilitated by the NGO Fambul Tok. Afghanistan is twenty years into implementing national community-driven development programming, first through the National Solidarity Program and now with the Citizen’s Charter National Priority Program. While Sierra Leone’s government is in the midst of designing and supporting the implementation of these initiatives, the government of Afghanistan has developed and refined structures and practices to support its programming. Each country also faces different realities with conflict as Sierra Leone consolidates peace in the aftermath of civil war while Afghanistan continues working towards peace in the midst of an ongoing conflict.