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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Millennium Challenge Corporation

    The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) aims to deliver assistance to underdeveloped countries with a focus on good policy, country ownership and developmental results. This note describes how MCC forms partnerships with highly underdeveloped countries and what criteria it applies. It assesses how it funds country-led solutions for general poverty reduction through large-scale grants and considers.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

    Impediments to foreign direct investment are a key constraint for developing countries seeking economic growth and poverty reduction. For many developing countries, political risk is one of the most significant impediments within this category. The multilateral investment guarantee agency (MIGA) addresses this constraint by providing political risk insurance guarantees to private sector investors and lenders… Read more

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  • Spain: From Dictatorship to Democracy, and Poverty to Prosperity

    The story of how Spain transitioned from a military dictatorship to a situational monarchy with a Parliamentary democracy is widely known. This paper scrutinizes the deeper process: how Spain developed its national institutions to build a new polity. How did leadership communicate its political vision, and how did careful sequencing of constitutional and legal reform.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Overseas Private Investment Corporation

    The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the US government’s developmental finance arm, mobilizes private capital to simultaneously solve global challenges and advance US foreign policy. This note considers how OPIC helps US businesses unlock emerging and frontier markets and what financing, insurance instruments and mechanisms it uses to achieve this. This note reviews OPIC’s activities.. Read more

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  • Himachal Pradesh: Understanding State-Level Transition in in India

    How did Himachal Pradesh evolve to become one of India’s wealthiest states, with low poverty levels and above average literacy?  The prospect appeared unlikely when 30 princely Hill states merged to form a state characterized by subsistence farming and India’s lowest literacy rate. It now has a developed banking sector and India’s highest levels of.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Small Enterprise Assistance Funds

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in emerging and transition markets often struggle to attract capital, although SMEs typically generate countries’ largest source of employment, goods and services. Small Enterprise Assistance Funds (SEAF) provides such enterprises with financing and business assistance for positive community development. While initial focus was Central and Eastern Europe, it later concentrated.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Special Economic Zones

    This note reviews special economic zones, the variety of fiscal and economic regimes that govern them, and the potential they offer governments. It considers how they can stimulate foreign investment, regional development, technology transfer, foreign exchange income and employment, as well as some less tangible benefits.  This note seeks to understand why local and national.. Read more

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