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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Development Credit Authority of USAID

    Borrowers in developing countries often have restricted access to capital because risk-averse financial institutions refuse to look beyond their overall country risk profiles.  The Development Credit Authority (DCA) developed by USAID presents an innovative solution. This note describes how the DCA has deployed partial credit guarantees to reduce risk and collateral requirements and thereby stimulate.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Crop Insurance

    Crop insurance programs aim to redistribute risk and reduce agricultural sector volatility, helping to mitigate the many environmental and market risks that impact farmers’ incomes. This note examines the potential benefits of crop insurance programs and assesses their fit within wider risk management strategies for the agricultural sector.

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Export-Import Bank

    This note sets out the role of the United States export-import bank, the official US export credit agency, and explores the significance of its role in filling gaps in international trade finance.

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility

    The Caribbean presents a vulnerable combination of several very small states and a propensity to major natural catastrophes such as hurricanes. This combination spurred the creation of the world’s first multi-country risk pool. The Caribbean catastrophe risk insurance facility (CCRIF) helps governments limit the financial impact of catastrophe. The facility is supported by a technical.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: IFC Small and Medium Enterprise Toolkit

    Traditionally many business management tools were the preserve of public corporations and multinationals.  Now, as a result of the IFC small and medium enterprise (SME) toolkit initiative, tools such as business plan generators, website builders, financial models and calculators, blogging and conference facilities are available to SMEs, particularly in developing countries. This note assesses the.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Millennium Challenge Corporation

    The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) aims to deliver assistance to underdeveloped countries with a focus on good policy, country ownership and developmental results. This note describes how MCC forms partnerships with highly underdeveloped countries and what criteria it applies. It assesses how it funds country-led solutions for general poverty reduction through large-scale grants and considers.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

    Impediments to foreign direct investment are a key constraint for developing countries seeking economic growth and poverty reduction. For many developing countries, political risk is one of the most significant impediments within this category. The multilateral investment guarantee agency (MIGA) addresses this constraint by providing political risk insurance guarantees to private sector investors and lenders… Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Overseas Private Investment Corporation

    The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the US government’s developmental finance arm, mobilizes private capital to simultaneously solve global challenges and advance US foreign policy. This note considers how OPIC helps US businesses unlock emerging and frontier markets and what financing, insurance instruments and mechanisms it uses to achieve this. This note reviews OPIC’s activities.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Small Enterprise Assistance Funds

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in emerging and transition markets often struggle to attract capital, although SMEs typically generate countries’ largest source of employment, goods and services. Small Enterprise Assistance Funds (SEAF) provides such enterprises with financing and business assistance for positive community development. While initial focus was Central and Eastern Europe, it later concentrated.. Read more

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  • Economic Tools Mapping: Special Economic Zones

    This note reviews special economic zones, the variety of fiscal and economic regimes that govern them, and the potential they offer governments. It considers how they can stimulate foreign investment, regional development, technology transfer, foreign exchange income and employment, as well as some less tangible benefits.  This note seeks to understand why local and national.. Read more

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  • Key Economic Tools

    This note proposes 29 economic tools, detailing the pros and cons of each, illustrated by successful examples. For each tool it also considers potential means of implementation, sequencing and recommends relevant implementation levels, e.g. village, district, province or state. The rationale for these tools is that in certain cases (we use Afghanistan by way of.. Read more

  • Economic Tools Mapping: Homestrings

    The Homestrings investment firm raises equity and debt capital to target emerging and frontier markets. It aims to offer diaspora populations from the developing world access to funds and projects with development potential that were previously only available to institutional investors.  

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