Transformation & Reform


How regions, countries, and localities have confronted and overcome their own challenges is instructive for leaders and citizens facing challenges today. Drawing on both historical analysis and lessons from its work advising leaders, ISE continues to document a diverse set of cases of transformation and reforms. These cases provide insight into how leaders and citizens developed a reform agenda, the policies and institutions advanced reforms, how the market and citizens were engaged, and what communications strategies were employed. Explore the Country Transition and Transformation paper series for our analysis of successful transformations.

Country Transitions and Transformations


The Country Transitions and Transformations series charts how regions, countries, and localities have confronted and overcome the challenges of statebuilding. The case studies explore the economic, social, and political dynamics of large-scale transformations, offering key insights into “what works” for tackling the pressing issues of today. Cases range from the making of Turkey’s modern state to state-level reform in India and Finland’s consensus-building citizenship model. View the entire series here.

Sierra Leone: From Changing Attitudes to Changing Outcomes

This article assesses the remarkable progress Sierra Leone has made since the civil war ended in 2002: the consolidation of its political system; improved security; and the establishment of a solid basis for decentralized governance.…

View Complete Publication

Turkey: Constructing a Modern State 1918 to 1938

The creation of modern Turkey was characterized by a remarkable set of internally driven reforms. We break this complicated process into its key components. What were the key political steps? What were the key economic…

View Complete Publication

EU Accession: Norms and Incentives

The EU accession process has been truly remarkable in its scale and scope. The nature of the changes it has brought about across diverse societies through incentives, normative pressure, conditionality and social learning is unmatched…

View Complete Publication

Nepal: From Politics to Progress

This paper considers how, at an ‘open moment’ in its history, Nepal might meet the challenge of moving from slogan to implementation. It suggests national programs have a role to play in facilitating this process…

View Complete Publication

The Aid Relationship in Afghanistan: Struggling for Government Leadership

This case study explores how, during the transitional years of 2001 to 2006, Afghan authorities shaped their ‘aid relationship’ with the international community. It describes the strategies, frameworks, policies and systems to manage aid that…

View Complete Publication