• Turkey: Constructing a Modern State 1918 to 1938

    The creation of modern Turkey was characterized by a remarkable set of internally driven reforms. We break this complicated process into its key components. What were the key political steps? What were the key economic measures? How did a narrow but unified leadership effect sweeping social and cultural change? In answering these questions we explain.. Read more

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  • The Development of Frameworks for Effective Policy-Making in Chile

    Why is Chile now considered a model of good governance and free-market reform? How has it moved to an open, prosperous and stable democracy and how successful has it been in moving beyond the faction of an unsuccessful socialist experiment and the backlash of military dictatorship? We also consider whether a more flexible social policy.. Read more

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  • The Case of Transformation in Mozambique

    Mozambique is now one of Africa’s fastest growing economies. What were the key steps in its path from Civil War, through one party state system and centrally planned socialist economy, to multiparty constitutional democracy? How were the efforts of the country’s internal leadership supported by the international donor community?  Why is the country considered an.. Read more

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  • Spain: From Dictatorship to Democracy, and Poverty to Prosperity

    The story of how Spain transitioned from a military dictatorship to a situational monarchy with a Parliamentary democracy is widely known. This paper scrutinizes the deeper process: how Spain developed its national institutions to build a new polity. How did leadership communicate its political vision, and how did careful sequencing of constitutional and legal reform.. Read more

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  • Singapore: From Third World to First

    How did Singapore transform itself from a breakaway island state few considered viable, wracked with ethnic tension, political and economic problems, to a thriving economic hub and global financial center? Which areas of economy and government did leadership target to drive this extraordinary transformation? We consider the particular characteristics of Singapore’s approach, with its emphasis.. Read more

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  • Nobody Owes Us Anything: Self-Destruction to Self-Reliance in Rwanda (2010)

    How has Rwanda generated uniquely Rwandan solutions through leveraging its assets to national regeneration? What were the key elements of the Rwandan government’s reform program, and how did it balance robust economic growth with reconciling the country’s dark legacy?  We explain how, even though the country has yet to balance security and stability with individual.. Read more

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  • Karnataka: Understanding State Level Transition in India

    We explain why Karnataka is an instructive case study, containing both positive and negative lessons. In the last decade income growth has been spectacular; self-interested policy making have led it to be branded India’s most corrupt state. We look at how the state’s role has altered rather than diminished, so that it has become a.. Read more

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